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Items filtered by date: August 2016 - The San Bernardino American News

A Brief History of Slavery and the Origins of American Policing

Written by Victor E. Kappeler, Ph.D.

Slave Catchers at work

American police at work

The birth and development of the American police can be traced to a multitude of historical, legal and political-economic conditions. The institution of slavery and the control of minorities, however, were two of the more formidable historic features of American society shaping early policing. Slave patrols and Night Watches, which later became modern police departments, were both designed to control the behaviors of minorities. For example, New England settlers appointed Indian Constables to police Native Americans (National Constable Association, 1995), the St. Louis police were founded to protect residents from Native Americans in that frontier city, and many southern police departments began as slave patrols. In 1704, the colony of Carolina developed the nation's first slave patrol. Slave patrols helped to maintain the economic order and to assist the wealthy landowners in recovering and punishing slaves who essentially were considered property.

Policing was not the only social institution enmeshed in slavery. Slavery was fully institutionalized in the American economic and legal order with laws being enacted at both the state and national divisions of government. Virginia, for example, enacted more than 130 slave statutes between 1689 and 1865. Slavery and the abuse of people of color, however, was not merely a southern affair as many have been taught to believe. Connecticut, New York and other colonies enacted laws to criminalize and control slaves. Congress also passed fugitive Slave Laws, laws allowing the detention and return of escaped slaves, in 1793 and 1850. As Turner, Giacopassi and Vandiver (2006:186) remark, “the literature clearly establishes that a legally sanctioned law enforcement system existed in America before the Civil War for the express purpose of controlling the slave population and protecting the interests of slave owners. The similarities between the slave patrols and modern American policing are too salient to dismiss or ignore. Hence, the slave patrol should be considered a forerunner of modern American law enforcement.”

The legacy of slavery and racism did not end after the Civil War. In fact it can be argued that extreme violence against people of color became even worse with the rise of vigilante groups who resisted Reconstruction. Because vigilantes, by definition, have no external restraints, lynch mobs had a justified reputation for hanging minorities first and asking questions later. Because of its tradition of slavery, which rested on the racist rationalization that Blacks were sub-human, America had a long and shameful history of mistreating people of color, long after the end of the Civil War. Perhaps the most infamous American vigilante group, the Ku Klux Klan started in the 1860s, was notorious for assaulting and lynching Black men for transgressions that would not be considered crimes at all, had a White man committed them. Lynching occurred across the entire county not just in the South. Finally, in 1871 Congress passed the Ku Klux Klan Act, which prohibited state actors from violating the Civil Rights of all citizens in part because of law enforcements’ involvement with the infamous group. This legislation, however, did not stem the tide of racial or ethnic abuse that persisted well into the 1960s.

Though having white skin did not prevent discrimination in America, being White undoubtedly made it easier for ethnic minorities to assimilate into the mainstream of America. The additional burden of racism has made that transition much more difficult for those whose skin is black, brown, red, or yellow. In no small part because of the tradition of slavery, Blacks have long been targets of abuse. The use of patrols to capture runaway slaves was one of the precursors of formal police forces, especially in the South. This disastrous legacy persisted as an element of the police role even after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In some cases, police harassment simply meant people of African descent were more likely to be stopped and questioned by the police, while at the other extreme, they have suffered beatings, and even murder, at the hands of White police. Questions still arise today about the disproportionately high numbers of people of African descent killed, beaten, and arrested by police in major urban cities of America.

Victor E. Kappeler, Ph.D.

Associate Dean and Foundation Professor

School of Justice Studies

Eastern Kentucky University


National Constables Association (1995). Constable. In W. G. Bailey (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Police Science (2nd ed., pp. 114–114). New York, NY: Garland Press.

Turner, K. B. , Giacopassi , D. , & Vandiver , M. (2006) . Ignoring the Past: Coverage of Slavery and Slave Patrols in Criminal Justice Texts. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 17: (1), 181–195.


Michelle Obama's Most Fashionable Moments of 2016

First Lady Michelle Obama arrives alongside President Obama at ABC's Taking the Stage: African American Music and Stories that Changed America program wearing a navy blue button down dress with a ruffled hem. Photo by ZACH GIBSON

FLOTUS attends dinner at the Kirchner Cultural Centre Buenos Aires in a metallic gown with shimmery embroidery. Photo by JUAN MABROMATA/AFP/Getty Images

FLOTUS arrives in Ezeiza, Buenos Aires, Argentina in Narcisco Rodriguez. Photo by JUAN MABROMATA/AFP/Getty Images

FLOTUS attends the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture dedication in a chic black and white sheath dress.

FLOTUS attends a private lunch hosted by the Queen Elizabeth II in Oscar de la Renta. Photo by WPA Pool/Getty Images

US President Barack Obama, First Lady Michelle Obama, Prince Harry, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge pose as they attend a dinner at Kensington Palace in London, England

President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama wearing Naeem Khan arrive at the Phoenix Awards Dinner at Walter E. Washington Convention Center on September 17, 2016 in Washington, DC.

First Lady Michelle Obama is one of the most fashionable first ladies the White House has ever seen and we have the receipts to prove it. She's been slaying since the beginning but her looks for 2016 continue to raise the bar. Take a look at her best style moments of 2016 so far.


23 U.S. Presidents And Presidential Hopefuls Ranked By IQ Score

For kids growing up in the United States, aspirations of becoming president ranks somewhere in the top five dream jobs along with a firefighter, doctor and, of course, a ninja. Strict specifications or poor personal decisions prevent some of the nation’s brightest and boldest from ever having the dream realized.

Now, that is not to deny that some highly questionable characters have finagled their way into the oval office. Here is a list comprised of college dropouts to true geniuses intended to motivate anyone wanting to rule the world:

John Quincy Adams

Source: Liberty Law Site

IQ: 168.8

Son of the 2nd American President, John Adams, John Quincy Adams stamped his name into the history books through countless contributions which stand to this day. After graduating from Harvard with a Master in Arts, Adams served as Secretary of State before being elected president in 1824. Adams fought tirelessly against slavery, speaking for the abolishment of slavery in Congress and court. Although Adams possibly suffered from depression, his eloquent, diplomatic stance on foreign and national concerns affected all those who he met.

Thomas Jefferson

Source: jrbenjamin

IQ: 160

“I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.”

Thomas Jefferson, America’s 3rd president, was apparently a horrendous public speaker, despite having conceived patriotic and powerful quotes such as the one above. Jefferson, who is considered the principal author of the Declaration of Independence, challenged conventional theories on science and technology, supposedly inventing and improving devices such as a macaroni machine and the swivel chair. Historians claim that Jefferson was behind the Louisiana Purchase.

Jefferson’s legacy as one of the greatest U.S. presidents remains marred by his ownership of slaves and his treatment and removal of Native Americans.

John F. Kennedy

Source: Huffington Post

IQ: 158

The youngest president to ever be elected to office, John F. Kennedy is remembered and hailed as one of the most inspirational public figures ever to serve the U.S. As a Harvard graduate and Navy veteran, Kennedy won a Pulitzer Prize at the young age of 40 for his book Profiles in Courage. Kennedy, who managed to live comfortably through an inheritance left by his late father, donated his yearly salary as Congressman and President to multiple charities, according to

After surviving several war injuries during his military career, Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, two years after taking office. Numerous theories have risen throughout the years as to the reasons and people involved in his assassination, yet his death remains shrouded in mystery.

Bill Clinton

IQ: 156

Bill Clinton, husband of Hillary Clinton, could be the first male First Lady (First Gentleman? First Dude?) in the history of the United States. He is the third-youngest president, and was probably best known for the Monica Lewinsky scandal that nearly resulting in him losing his presidency in 1998.

Before moving into politics, he attended Yale Law school, earning a law degree in 1973, as well as meeting his future wife Hillary Rodham, who he married in 1975. He has been rated highly by voters since leaving office.

Jimmy Carter

IQ: 153

Jimmy Carter, the 39th president of the United States, was born into a peanut-farming family in rural Georgia. Humble beginnings for the most powerful man in the world. He then went onto a career in the navy before returning to the peanut business. He then moved on to become the senator, and then governer of Georgia.

After defeating Gerald Ford by an extremely close margin in 1976, taking Southern states by storm. However, by 1980, his bid for re-election failed, and will be known as one of the least successful campaigns in United States history.

However, he was able to win a Nobel PEace Prize for his work in the Carter Center, which resolved conflicts overseas and works to diminish the impact of various diseases.

Theodore Roosevelt


IQ: 149

If you have ever looked at a stuffed bear toy and thought of it as “Teddy”, you can thank the 26th president. Theodore Roosevelt, born frail and with debilitating asthma, graduated from Harvard College in 1880. As a Columbia Law School dropout, Roosevelt went on to become the first president to win the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in ending the conflict between Japan and Russia. An avid hunter and boxer, Roosevelt was known for his vigor and manliness while holding office.

“Speak softly and carry a big stick,” said Roosevelt.

Barack Obama

Source: Goliath

IQ: 145

Born in Hawaii to a Kenyan father and an American mother, President Barack Obama is the first African-American male to be elected into office. Critics, such as Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, have attacked Obama for not being born within the United States. President Obama stated:

“No-one is happier to put this birth certificate matter to rest than the Donald and that’s because he can finally get back to focusing on the issues that matter. Like, did we fake the moon landing? What really happened in Roswell? And where are Biggie and Tupac?”

President Obama attended, and graduated from, Columbia University and Harvard Law School. In 2004, President Obama became the fifth African American Senator in U.S. history. Since becoming president, Obama has reformed health care coverage and minimized U.S. military presence in war-ridden Iraq. Recently, President Obama has backed Democratic presidential nominee Hillary R. Clinton in her run towards the oval office.

John Adams

Q: 142.5

The second president of the United States was one of the founding fathers of the nation. He was the father of John Quincy Adams and served as the first ever Vice-President, to George Washington. And he must’ve been smart! He attended Harvard in 1751 at the age of 16.

Nowadays, 16 year olds are expected to get a license or be studying how the mitochondria is the powerhouse of a cell. After this, he began studying law and was quickly admitted to the bar. Later, he would go on to become Vice-President, and then President of the United States.


Mitt Romney

IQ: 142

Mitt Romney was the 70th Governor of Massachusetts and was pitted against Barack Obama in the 2012 Presidential Election. Unfortunately for him, it didn’t all work out and Obama won a second term in office.

Now one of the most difficult universities to attend, Romney chose to go to Stanford, and after a mission trip to France, he attended Brigham Young University. After graduating from BYU, he, like many others, went to Harvard to study law and business. This stranslated to a strong career in business, working in management consulting and private equity investment, resulting in a net-worth of between $20 to $100 million.

Hillary Clinton

Source: Wikipedia

IQ: 140

2016 Democratic presidential nominee and expert email eradicator Hillary Rodham Clinton is possibly one of the savviest women in politics today. A graduate of Yale Law School in 1973, Hillary, wife of former President Bill Clinton, is also the first woman ever to serve in the New York State Senate. Hillary, who won a Grammy for the audio version of her book It Takes a Village, is seeking to become the first female to be elected as president. Growing up in Illinois, Hillary wanted nothing more than a successful career in politics.

“The challenge now is to practice politics as the art of making what appears to be impossible, possible,” said Hillary.

Hillary is well on her way to making her dreams a reality.

Abraham Lincoln

Source: Time

IQ: 140

As 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln surpassed difficulties that would have destroyed most millennials alive today. With only 18 months of formal schooling, Lincoln was mostly self-taught, having been born into a working class family in 1809.

“Of course, when I came of age I did not know much. Still somehow, I could read, write, and cipher … but that was all,” wrote Lincoln.

Honest Abe, as he was known at the time, is also the only president to hold a patent for a feature that helps keep boats from getting stuck in shallow waters. For his distinguished leadership and steadfast convictions against slavery, Lincoln’s face adorns one of the most despised coins in all of the American currency. Nicely done, America.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Source: History Channel

IQ: 139.6

If you are wondering whether Franklin is related to Theodore Roosevelt, the answer is yes. The two former presidents are fifth cousins, which must have made things weird when Uncle Teddy lead his niece Eleanor down the aisle to marry Franklin. Eleanor will later make headlines for her alleged sexual experiences with other women.

Franklin was not the sharpest tool in the shed, yet he excelled in Harvard and Columbia Law School. After being diagnosed with polio, Franklin went on to become governor New York. Franklin served four terms as President of the United States before passing in 1945.

Ted Cruz

IQ: 135

A prominent Republican nominee in the 2016 election and one of Trump’s favorite targets, “Lyin’ Ted” attended Princeton and Harvard, so that’s nothing to sneeze at. While at Harvard, he also edited the Harvard Law review before graduating with his Juris Doctor degree.

He was highly regarded by his professors and peers, who even went as far as to say he was “off the charts briliant”. After graduating, he started a private practice and even drafted testimony to help impeach then-president Bill Clinton. Later, he became a senator in Texas before running in the Republican race in 2015-2016.

George Washington


IQ: 132.5

George Washington, America’s very first president and distinguished revolutionary, was a master of setting precedents. Washington proclaimed November 26 as Thanksgiving, signed the first copyright law, and is the only president to be elected unanimously by the Electoral College.

Born in 1732, Washington was commissioned as a lieutenant in the colonial militia in 1754, according to Washington received very little accredited schooling and instead depended on learning from his older siblings and random tutors. Still, Washington was able to make a business of selling his trademarked flour Gristmill, which was labeled as “superfine” flour. From founding father to grounding flour, Washington endures as an inspirational figure of supremacy.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

IQ: 131.9

Eisenhower was born inb Texas in 1890 to Ida and David Eisenhower. He attendeded the United States Military Academy and was a starter at running back and linebacker for the football team. After serving in the World Wars, he served as President at Columbia University.

After winning a landslide victory in 1952, he became one of the oldest presidents in history. He became known for the Interstate highway bill and also establishing NASA. After doing well to improve the economy, he will be known as one of tyhe greatest U.S. presidents.

Richard Nixon


IQ: 131

Names such as Celebgate in 2014 and Deflategate in 2015 derive from the original scandal, Watergate, which forced the resignation of then U.S. President Richard Nixon. Before incriminating top White House officials in clandestine tricks, Nixon graduated 3rd in his Duke Law School class, according to After suffering a loss to John F. Kennedy for office in 1960, Nixon was selected as Dwight D.

Eisenhower’s running mate. After being elected president in 1968, Nixon triumphantly pushed for the end of American involvement in the Vietnam war. Former President Nixon remains one of the most iconic men ever to hold office.

George H.W. Bush

IQ: 130.1

So, the senior Bush is smarter than his son? Who would’ve known. The 41st president of the United States was born in Milton, Massachusetts. He enlisted in the army at age 18 and attended Yale University where he was the president of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. He was also a member of the Skull and Bones society.

His Bachelor’s of Economics translated into a successful career in the oil industry and became a millionaire. He then went into politics, serving in the house of representatives and a variety of other places, before running for and winning the 1989 federal election.

Ronald Reagan

Source: National Archives

IQ: 130

Quick! Which sports radio announcer turned actor won a Golden Globe award and served two terms as the U.S. president? If you guessed Ronald Reagan, you would win all of the licorice jellybeans you can buy.

Considered the most successful actor in history, according to, Reagan graduated from Dixon High School and attended Eureka College on a scholarship, graduating with a degree in economics. While serving as president from 1981-1989, Reagan prospered in strengthening America’s troubled economy and lead efforts to minimize government expenditures. Attempts to follow in Reagan’s footsteps have fortunately fallen short for others as Roseanne Barr unsuccessfully ran for President of the United States in 2012.

Herbert Hoover

Source: Politico

IQ: 129.77

Upon hearing the name “Hoover,” most people think of the vacuum or the humongous dam located in Nevada. Well, those thinking of the dam is correct, as the dam itself was controversially named after the 31st U.S. president. Much more can be said for “The Great Humanitarian,” Herbert Hoover, who selflessly led Americans through World War I.

After graduating from Stanford University as a mining engineer, Hoover focused on aiding domestic and international food relief efforts. President Hoover founded the Department of Veteran Affairs, which provides assistance to thousands of U.S. service members. Hoover is also known for his appearance in the first American television broadcast.

Jeb Bush

IQ: 128

The second son of George H.W. Bush, and the younger brother of George W. Bush, he earned his degree from the University of Texas. In high school, he started out with poor grades, but eventually, he turned things around and made the honor roll in senior year. After that, he attended graduated from college with a degree in Latin American affairs.

He moved to Florida for a real-estate job, as well as other jobs. He also became a minority-owner of the Jacksonville Jaguars. He began helping his father in his election campaign and became governer of Florida in 1998.

Gerald Ford

Source: CBS News

IQ: 127

Few athletes have successfully traded their celebrity status for a life of public service. University of Michigan football MVP, Gerald Ford, born Leslie L. King Jr., became vice president and then president of the United States, all without ever running for office. Nominated as vice president by residing President Richard Nixon, Ford became the leader of the free world after the Watergate Scandal forced Nixon to resign.

Ford, who graduated in the top third of his class in Yale’s law school, proved to be a great American leader setting standards for women equality and personal privacy.

George W. Bush

Source: Deadstate

IQ: 124

“Fool me once shame on you…fool me, you can’t get fooled again.”

Ok, so this may not be the best quote from the 43rd president of the United States, but the man is far from a dummy. A former Bush aide, Keith Hennessey, once told his class in Stanford that former President Bush “is smarter than almost every one of you.” Hennessey praised Bush for maintaining a keen and analytical mindset. Under the Bush administration, Africa received billions of dollars in humanitarian efforts to fight against HIV/AIDS and malaria.

Bush remains transparent regarding his school grades keeping his Yale transcript open to the public. Bush never received an A in college and maintained a C average, which should give hope to any simpleton looking to become president one day.

Donald Trump


Source: BuffettWorld

IQ: 120-130

Say what you want about the floppy-haired tycoon, but Donald Trump, 70, remains one of the biggest names in the business. The business mogul is currently in the race of becoming the 45th president, despite strong opposition from both Democrats and Republicans alike. Before throwing his hat into the presidential ring, Trump established a clothing line, a TV show and numerous casinos around the world. Trump graduated with a degree in economics from the University of Pennsylvania and is reportedly worth $4.5 billion. No presidential candidate has caused and faced as much hostility as Trump, yet manages to gather votes despite high disapproval ratings across the nation.

“I would bring back waterboarding, and I’d bring back a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding,” said Trump during a Republican Presidential Debate.

Way to go, genius.


Arrowhead Regional Medical Center physician travels to Kenya on humanitarian mission

Kijabe Medical Centre in Kenya welcomed a new physician this summer, Michael Gentry, M.D., from Arrowhead Regional Medical Center’s Medical Imaging Department. Dr. Gentry, one of 10 radiologists at the Colton, California, hospital, was the only radiologist manning a CT during his humanitarian mission to Kijabe. He handled 10-to-15 CT studies a day and often walked over to assist sonographers with their ultrasounds.

“I brought my daughters, age five and nine, and my wife. It was our first trip as a family to Kenya,” he said. “I wanted our daughters to see how fortunate they are.”

Dr. Gentry, from Riverside, started traveling when he was in medical school at UCLA and never stopped. He traveled to New Zealand before he graduated and later returned during his UCLA residency and got a New Zealand medical license so that he could do medical work.

“When I got to Stanford as an undergraduate, I already knew that I wanted to study medicine,” said Dr. Gentry. “I grew up around hospitals, where I spent most of my evenings and holidays.

“My older sister was diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) when I was entering first grade, and that had a lot to do with my interest in medicine. I was inspired to go into radiology, because of my parents, who are computer programmers. I thought radiology was a good combination of medicine and computers.”

Dr. Gentry did his radiology training at UCLA and then did a two-year trauma radiology fellowship at the University of Maryland. He had just gotten married a few months prior to moving to Maryland, where his wife attended law school.

“My wife asked me if I had ever considered doing medical missionary work,” said Dr. Gentry. “I said, ‘where am I going to find a hospital that has radiology equipment but still needs a radiologist?’”

Dr. Gentry found that hospital in Kenya, at Kijabe Medical Centre, which is near Nairobi and is located at an elevation of 7,000 feet. Dr. Gentry and his family stayed in a three bedroom apartment built in the late 70’s by a long term missionary who brought eight children with him.

“The furnishings were modest but more than adequate,” said Dr. Gentry. “I’d say the worst part of the accommodations was the lack of heat. The evenings were cold so we were forced to bundle up with jackets inside the house.”

Dr. Gentry hopes that his recent trip to Kenya is one of many. He would like to find a way to make humanitarian missions like this part of his professional career.


Stater Bros. Charities and Inland Women Fighting Cancer Present the 9th Annual Believe Walk on Sunday, October 2nd

Over $3 Million Donated to Support “Hometown” Cancer Fighting Organizations

Health/Fitness News

WHAT: The 9th Annual Believe Walk will take place on Sunday, October 2, 2016 in historic downtown Redlands, rain or shine. Participants will walk along a family friendly and dog friendly 5K route lined with fun-filled entertainment including live music, motivational cheer groups and Bark and Believe stations for dogs. Pre-event festivities will include a Survivor Celebration area, and the walk will conclude with the Believe Bash celebration at the Redlands Bowl.

WHY: Stater Bros. has always believed in doing the right thing for the right reason and takes great pride in ensuring that the proceeds from the Annual Stater Bros. Charities Believe Walk goes right back into the communities where our valued customers and employees live and work. Since 2008, Stater Bros. Charities Annual Believe Walk has donated over $3 million to local cancer fighting organizations.

START: Historic Downtown Redlands

State and Orange Streets

END: Redlands Bowl – Believe Bash

WHEN: Sunday, October 2nd

§ 6:30 a.m. – Pre-Walk Festivities and Registration begins

§ 7:45 a.m. – Pre-Walk Program begins

§ 8:00 a.m. – Walk begins

PARKING: Free parking is available at:

§ Redlands Mall

§ Public Parking Structure, Citrus Avenue

§ Public Parking Lot off Redlands Boulevard

§ Street Parking

§ “No Parking” areas are monitored. Vehicles will be towed at owner’s expense


CHECK-IN: Corner of Orange & State Streets near the Redlands Mall. Upon arrival contact

Marisa Kutansky (909) 957-2199.

About Inland Women Fighting Cancer (IWFC) and the creation of the Believe Walk

Local community leaders and cancer survivors Annie Sellas, Cathy Stockton, and Nancy Varner envisioned doing something in the community to raise awareness about cancer. During treatments, they had been each other’s support group and decided to do something for local Inland women facing the same prognosis. Inland Women Fighting Cancer, a coalition of friends, fellow survivors and supporters was formed.


An Ivy League professor on why colleges don’t hire more faculty of color: ‘We don’t want them’

By Marybeth Gasman September 26 at 4:30 PM

In “The five things no one will tell you about why colleges don’t hire more faculty of color,” a piece first published in the Hechinger Report, Marybeth Gasman took on a common question: Why aren’t college faculties more racially diverse?

It’s a question gaining increased urgency from student protesters demanding change on campuses nationally.

[Increasingly unified protests over race gain voice across the country]

Gasman is a professor of higher education in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Pennsylvania, where she directs the Penn Center for Minority Serving Institutions and holds secondary appointments in history, Africana studies, and the School of Social Policy and Practice.

— Susan Svrluga

While giving a talk about Minority Serving Institutions at a recent higher education forum, I was asked a question pertaining to the lack of faculty of color at many majority institutions, especially more elite institutions.

My response was frank: “The reason we don’t have more faculty of color among college faculty is that we don’t want them. We simply don’t want them.” Those in the audience were surprised by my candor and gave me a round of applause for the honesty.

Given the short amount of time I had on the stage, I couldn’t explain the evidence behind my statement. I will do so here. I have been a faculty member since 2000, working at several research universities. In addition, I give talks, conduct research and workshops and do consulting related to diversifying the faculty across the nation. I have learned a lot about faculty recruitment over 16 years and as a result of visiting many colleges and universities.

First, the word ‘quality’ is used to dismiss people of color who are otherwise competitive for faculty positions. Even those people on search committees that appear to be dedicated to access and equity will point to ‘quality’ or lack of ‘quality’ as a reason for not hiring a person of color.

Typically, ‘quality’ means that the person didn’t go to an elite institution for their Ph.D. or wasn’t mentored by a prominent person in the field. What people forget is that attending the elite institutions and being mentored by prominent people is linked to social capital and systemic racism ensures that people of color have less of it.

Second, the most common excuse I hear is ‘there aren’t enough people of color in the faculty pipeline.’

It is accurate that there are fewer people of color in some disciplines such as engineering or physics. However, there are great numbers of Ph.D.’s of color in the humanities and education and we still don’t have great diversity on these faculties.

When I hear someone say people of color aren’t in the pipeline, I respond with ‘Why don’t you create the pipeline?’ ‘Why don’t you grow your own?’

Since faculty members are resistant to hiring their own graduates, why not team up with several other institutions that are ‘deemed to be of high quality’ and bring in more Ph.D.s of color from those institutions?

If you are in a field with few people of color in the pipeline, why are you working so hard to ‘weed’ them out of undergraduate and Ph.D. programs? Why not encourage, mentor, and support more people of color in your field?

Third, I have learned that faculty will bend rules, knock down walls, and build bridges to hire those they really want (often white colleagues) but when it comes to hiring faculty of color, they have to ‘play by the rules’ and get angry when any exceptions are made.

Let me tell you a secret – exceptions are made for white people constantly in the academy; exceptions are the rule in academe.

Fourth, faculty search committees are part of the problem.

They are not trained in recruitment, are rarely diverse in makeup, and are often more interested in hiring people just like them rather than expanding the diversity of their department.

They reach out to those they know for recommendations and rely on ads in national publications.

And, even when they do receive a diverse group of applicants, often those applicants ‘aren’t the right fit’ for the institution. What is the ‘right fit’? Someone just like you?

Fifth, if majority colleges and universities are truly serious about increasing faculty diversity, why don’t they visit Minority Serving Institutions — institutions with great student and faculty diversity — and ask them how they recruit a diverse faculty.

This isn’t hard. The answers are right in front of us. We need the will.

For those reading this essay, you might be wondering why faculty diversity is important. Your wondering is yet another reason why we don’t have a more diverse faculty. Having a diverse faculty — in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, religion — adds greatly to the experiences of students in the classroom. It challenges them — given that they are likely not to have had diversity in their K-12 classroom teachers — to think differently about who produces knowledge. It also challenges them to move away from a ‘white-centered’ approach to one that is inclusive of many different voices and perspectives.

Having a diverse faculty strengthens the faculty and the institution as there is more richness in the curriculum and in conversations taking place on committees and in faculty meetings. A diverse faculty also holds the university accountable in ways that uplift people of color and center issues that are important to the large and growing communities of color across the nation.

Although I have always thought it vital that our faculty be representative of the nation’s diversity, we are getting to a point in higher education where increasing faculty diversity is an absolute necessity and crucial to the future of our nation.

In 2014, for the first time, the nation’s K-12 student population was majority minority. These students are on their way into colleges and universities and we are not prepared for them. Our current faculty lacks expertise in working with students of color and our resistance to diversifying the faculty means that we are not going to be ready anytime soon.

I’ll close by asking you to think deeply about your role in recruiting and hiring faculty. How often do you use the word ‘quality’ when talking about increased diversity? Why do you use it? How often do you point to the lack of people of color in the faculty pipeline while doing nothing about the problem?

How many books, articles, or training sessions have you attended on how to recruit faculty of color?

How many times have you reached out to departments with great diversity in your field and asked them how they attract and retain a diverse faculty?

How often do you resist when someone asks you to bend the rules for faculty of color hires but think it’s absolutely necessary when considering a white candidate (you know, so you don’t lose such a wonderful candidate)?

Rather than getting angry at me for pointing out a problem that most of us are aware of, why don’t you change your ways and do something to diversify your department or institution’s faculty?

I bet you don’t, but I sure hope you do.


Governor Signs Leyva Bill Helping Homeless Students

SB 1068 Ensures Stronger Continuum of Services for Homeless Students

State/Government News

SACRAMENTO – Senator Connie M. Leyva (D-Chino) is pleased to announce that SB 1068—which develops a more comprehensive and coordinated network of services for homeless students in California—was signed by Governor Jerry Brown earlier today.

Under SB 1068, the California Department of Education (CDE) will be required to provide valuable training and informational materials to local education agencies’ homeless student liaisons. These materials will help homeless student liaisons stay informed about state and federal laws and offer support for liaisons as they provide professional development for school staff. SB 1068 will also improve the standard of services provided to homeless students by requiring the CDE to ensure that liaisons participate in professional development in accordance with federal law.

“With over 300,000 homeless students, California has a clear responsibility to ensure that these traditionally underserved students receive the much needed support and services that will help set them on a path to future success,” Senator Leyva said. “Everyday things that many students take for granted—such as getting to and from school safely, being able to do their homework in a quiet place or even the ability to participate in after school activities—can be very difficult for students who do not have a consistent place to call home. By increasing the assistance that we offer homeless student liaisons across the state, SB 1068 will help homeless students excel both academically and personally by making sure that the staff responsible for providing services and helping them navigate the education system are well trained and have the necessary support from the state. I thank Governor Brown for signing this important bill that underscores California’s commitment to homeless students in our state.”

School districts and county offices of education are currently required to designate a homeless student liaison to help identify homeless students and assist them in accessing the rights and resources available to them by law. These liaisons are tasked with identifying and providing services to hundreds or even thousands of these students in their district and, in many cases, the homeless student liaison is just one of several responsibilities held by a single staff person.

SB 1068 did not receive any “No” votes during its legislative journey and will take effect on January 1, 2017. The bill was supported by the California Coalition for Youth, California Federation of Teachers, K to College, Los Angeles County Office of Education, Los Angeles Unified School District, National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, and the National Association of Social Workers.


Assemblyman Steinorth Shocked by Veto of Disaster Assistance Funds for San Bernardino

Over the weekend, Governor Jerry Brown vetoed legislation that would have provided financial relief for one hundred percent of total eligible costs resulting from the December 2, 2015 terrorist attack at the Inland Regional Center in San Bernardino. The bill, SB 1385 (Leyva), was co-authored by Assemblyman Marc Steinorth and received unanimous, bipartisan support in the Legislature. The measure was supported by the County of San Bernardino and the City of San Bernardino, as well as the county’s District Attorney and Sheriff’s Department.

“I am shocked, to say the least, in the refusal to support the bravery and skill of our local first-responders for their heroism on December 2,” said Steinorth. “Our law enforcement and county have been widely lauded for their heroism and success, including by Governor Brown. Given the extraordinary circumstances of that day, I am perplexed that the administration would not step up to help offset the tremendous costs.”

The California Disaster Assistance Act is the primary funding mechanism available for recovering local costs in response to acts of terrorism, which the California Office of Emergency Services (OES) oversees. This tragedy is the first terrorist attack for which OES is responsible for determining what costs will be eligible for reimbursement. The estimated cost in responding to the San Bernardino terrorist attack exceeds $19 million and, without further state help, local agencies will be financially penalized for their rapid and comprehensive response to this tragedy. SB 1385 would have prevented that from happening and would have made the local agencies whole.

Assemblyman Steinorth represents the 40th Assembly District which includes Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino, Highland, Loma Linda, and Redlands.


Israeli-American Coalition for Action Lauds Governor for Signing Historic Anti-BDS Legislation

SACRAMENTO, Calif. — Yesterday evening, Gov. Jerry Brown signed a bill to ensure that the state and its range of public agencies will not contract with businesses engaging in discriminatory boycotts against minority groups, including ones that undermine California's relationship with Israel.

“We applaud Governor Brown for signing this groundbreaking legislation,” said Shawn Evenhaim, Chairman of IAC for Action. “This new law sends a strong message that the state of California will accept its responsibility to protect its residents from the systemic hate and discrimination spread by the BDS movement and its proponents.”

Over the past nine months, the Israeli-American Coalition for Action (IAC for Action) has organized and mobilized the Israeli-American community, led a broad coalition of advocacy organizations and worked with a bipartisan group of legislators in support of the bill.


National Urban League Supports Senator Baldwin's Stronger Way Act

WASHINGTON, DC (September 27, 2016) – The National Urban League today announced its support for the Stronger Way Act, bold legislation Senator Tammy Baldwin (D-WI) introduced with Senator Cory Booker (D-NJ) to fight poverty with real solutions.

“The National Urban League applauds the Stronger Way Act’s focus on lifting families and individuals out of poverty through the transitional jobs program approach and by supporting work through expansions of the Earned Income and Child Tax Credits,” said Marc H. Morial, President and CEO of the National Urban League. “We believe the Stronger Way Act, introduced by Senators Baldwin and Booker, will be an important added strategy in our effort to reduce unemployment for individuals and families who must overcome barriers to accessing those jobs that provide a living wage. As a nonprofit, national intermediary organization, we look forward to seeing this legislation enacted and participating in its implementation.”

Last weekend, Senator Baldwin attended the Community Brainstorming Meeting in Milwaukee where she joined a dialogue on workforce development and career planning with community leaders including President and CEO of Milwaukee Urban League, Ralph Hollmon. While at the community brainstorming meeting, Baldwin highlighted her work on The Stronger Way Act, legislation that will help meet the challenge of lifting people up and out of poverty with respect, opportunity, and the dignity of work.

“I want to commend Senator Baldwin for her leadership on this important issue,” said Ralph Hollmon, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Milwaukee Urban League. “We know that having a job that pays a family supporting wage is one of the best ways to escape the vicious cycle of poverty. For many individuals who have difficulty finding employment, the transitional jobs program is their best hope of getting into the workforce and earning money in a positive, productive way.”

Specifically, The Stronger Way Act creates a new federal partnership to support state and local transitional jobs programs; rewards work with tax reforms that raise incomes for working families and individuals; and targets tax credits to working families with children.

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